The 2009 National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE) highlights the fact that the existing debate on teacher education in India imposes such demands on the part of teacher educators as well as on the teaching system.
As NCFTE 2009 points out, teachers must be established as transmitters, inspirers, and promoters of the human everlasting search for knowledge. Recent expectations are that the teacher needs to be prepared for the needs and demands that occur in the context of the classroom, to deal with issues of school experience, the learner, and the learning process.
The perceptions of the school system as a teacher shift from time to time, leading to wider social, economic, and political changes taking place in society. " In thinking about the Indian context, to understand the learning process in the classroom, it is important to recognize the socio-cultural reality that exists in every area.
That will lead to a better approach in the classroom. The teacher must make use of his / her agency, but at the same time understand and encourage the learning agency. Since the enactment of the Right to Education Act of 2009, the responsibilities and aspirations of teachers have expanded in several respects.
Now, the teacher`s role is not limited to teaching in the classroom, but at the same time, he/she has to take into account the socio-cultural context of the learner about the culture he/she comes from, he/she will have to consider the home setting, the parents, and at the same time, he/she will have to imagine the child's development in a holistic system, including the school structure.
This leads one to believe that, in today`s era, it is necessary for a teacher education program not only to concentrate on pedagogical issues in the classroom but also to make prospective teachers informed and aware of the myriad of other roles that a teacher may play beyond teaching.
Teacher education has become more of a burden to secure a job these days; particularly because the demand for qualified teachers has increased. This, in effect, has contributed to a large-scale mushrooming of teacher education institutions, without disrupting the standard of education received.
As a result, the ratio of teacher educators to student teachers has declined significantly. At this point, it is extremely necessary to concentrate on the skill and capacity of a teacher educator so that he/she can do justice to prospective students. The biggest challenge facing him/her is the lack of a trained faculty.
The faculty named does not hold skills or expertise in elementary education. A good number of CTEs face faculty shortages, limited library facilities, and spend more time on initial teacher education, while research, growth, and creative activities have yet to take shape.
The same is true of IASEs. More recently, the capacity of both CTEs and IASEs to perform their required positions has been under significant scrutiny. (NCFTE, 2009)
"Teachers' instruction is currently a major area of concern, as both pre-service and in-service instruction of school teachers is highly insufficient and poorly handled in most states." Pre-service training needs to be strengthened and governed differently both in public and private institutions, while in-service training programs need extensions and significant changes that allow for greater flexibility.
There is a broad variance in the status of teachers and the need for teachers at various levels of school education across the world. It is important to establish a broad scope of work that can address some of the main issues common to teaching at different levels, to enable states to respond to needs relevant to their contexts.
However, the variety of institutional structures for education in alternative schools, government schools, and private schools has its demands and will need to be discussed (NCFTE, 2009).
The cycle of schooling is not static. It`s always changing every day, every moment. The drivers of reform include the goals and priorities of the education system, the evaluation process, the teaching process, the learning process, and, most importantly, the learning process. It is important to research and consider the wants and desires of 21st-century learners.
Needless to say, the position of a teacher is part of the learning process. It affects teacher preparation systems, which must always keep the learner and the learning process in mind. Upon reaching the classroom, the learner has already developed an understanding of the environment.
He/she should be considered more than just a physical or psychological object that needs to be fed with information. Each learner has a specific sociocultural background that he/she brings to school. There is a two-way relationship between the learner and the context from which it originates.
Context constantly feeds into the growth of the learner, and vice versa is also accurate. The learner knows, understands, and interprets the world differently. This is a challenge for the instructor to fulfill the unique needs of the learner.
The learners of this century are very involved, imaginative, collaborative, and well-aware. They are actively interested in the growth of their community and surroundings. They play a key role in their learning. They`re spontaneous and sensitive. It can be said that the learning abilities are not set, but can be improved through experience and exposure.
In this age of technology, where even a toddler is conveniently capable of discovering a device, school learners need a great deal of freedom to discover, ask, examine, experience, and knowledge. This means that teachers have the freedom to improve logical reasoning, critical thinking, and analytical techniques.
A sharp contrast between the traditional learner and the learner of the present generation can be seen as the former being a passive recipient of learning, and the latter becoming an active constructor of knowledge through involvement and exploration.
The changing essence of the 21st learner as compared to the conventional learner simply means that the learning process in the classroom has shifted. It`s developed over some time. The conventional teaching approach centered on the behavioral model, based on trial and error approaches, observational learning, stimulus, and response patterns.
It was accompanied by a naturalistic approach focused on human methods of teaching and learning in traditional settings. This was accompanied by a cognitive approach that stressed the importance of cognition and meta-cognition during the learning process.
Nevertheless, with the turn of the 21st century, a significant paradigm shift has arisen. This was the development of a modern teaching approach called constructivism. In this approach, the learner is considered not a passive receiver of knowledge, but an active creator of that knowledge.
This construction is based on his / her perception of reality and engagement with his / her personal experiences. Therefore, in this case, the learning process is not simple and linear, but complex and changing.
It can be perceived that the learning process is highly affected by the learners and teachers of the period. This ensures that teacher education curricula must also be adapted to suit the needs of ever-changing learners and the learning process.
As set out in the preceding section, the learning process for the current century is complex and focused on the engagement, evaluation, and discovery of the learner rather than the teacher expressing his/her ideas. 27 This is why, N.C.F 2005, correctly said, "Learning is not the exploration of truth, but the creation of knowledge." Awareness and perception must be built, and the results must be felt. Education is no longer a passive absorption of knowledge and concepts, but a creation of ideas based on one`s own experience.
A shift like the learner and, subsequently, in the learning process, also leads to a shift like the 21st-century teacher. The teacher plays a pivotal role in the interaction cycle in the classroom. And changes in the essence and role of a teacher are unavoidable, along with changes in the overall learning scenario.
Historical accounts indicate that the role and authority of a teacher shift with the education system that prevails along with the teaching-learning process as a whole. The education system dates back to the "Gurukul-Approval System," where the "Gurus-Approval" was considered to be the supreme authority.
Without a prescribed curriculum, schooling was focused on the theological texts and the day-to-day learning skills of the students based on their skills. This was preceded by the Buddhist education system. The teachers were the monks here.
The knowledge given was primarily about the theological aspects of Buddha`s life. The Muslim education system followed where the Maulvis teachers were, and the learning process focused on the knowledge of Islam and the Quran.
The formal education system in India was founded and developed by the British in 1600 A.D. This was achieved to get people to learn the English language and get an education so that they could work for the rulers.
At the same time, formal schools were founded across the country to set up some institutes for teacher education for teacher training. The network of teacher education services, as it is known today, has been set up.
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With the emergence of constructivism, the functions and duties of a teacher have fundamentally changed. A constructivist instructor does not rule, but demonstrates, does not clarify, but promotes, does not provide information, but helps to develop knowledge, does not provide, but encourages exploration, does not pass on experience, but enables learners to draw on their own experience. Its duty is not to feed the learner with the knowledge but to provide a supportive atmosphere for learning to take place.
The National Curriculum Framework for School Education (2005) and the National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009) have rightly pointed out that the main role of teachers is to promote and encourage learning.
A teacher encourages learners to realize their potential and articulates their personal and context-specific experiences in ways that are appropriate in the wider context of our country. It is also stated in the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (2005) that, in a learner-centered learning situation, the curriculum develops and is not pre-designed; some of these may include knowledge, cognitive capacity, analytical skills, empathetic awareness, reflection, understanding, and appreciation of the evolving needs not only of the learner but of the developing society as a whole.
The National Policy on Education (1986–1992process,) acknowledges that teachers should have the ability to innovate, formulate effective methods of communication, and function as important to the needs and capacities of the community and the interests of the community.
As is evident from the evolving nature of the learner, the learning process, and the complexity and role of the learning process. In the present situation, the curriculum should be able to meet the needs of the 21st-century learner and the learning cycle.
And this could be accomplished by allowing prospective teachers to meet the roles and aspirations attached to them. As the learners are special, so are their needs. In this context, teachers should be able to recognize as well as develop individual strengths and abilities. To carry out this mission effectively, the burden rests with the curriculum of the teacher education program.
Post-independence, the Government of India has made efforts to establish an effective curriculum that would do justice to the scenario and the changing requirements. As it was difficult to create a curriculum for complex learning environments, a range of committees and commissions were set up to work in this direction.
In its report, the Kothari Commission (1964-66) said, "The need for teacher education must be brought into the center of the academic life of universities, on the one hand, and school life and educational innovations, on the other. "According to the Yashpal Committee Report (1993), inadequate teacher training programs contribute to the inadequate standard of education in schools."
The content of the curriculum will be restructured to ensure that it applies to the evolving needs of school education. The emphasis in these programs will be on enabling trainees to develop the capacity for self-learning and critical thinking. "The Chattopadhyay Commission reported that "teacher education is a lifelong and continuous learning cycle, and its pre-service and in-service components are inseparable."
The Government of India, the UGC, and the NCTE have made a range of efforts to establish a teaching curriculum that is suitable to the needs of learners. In this regard, other commissions have been set up to update the philosophy as well as the operational components of the program. NCTE has introduced an updated curriculum for B.Ed. In 1998, 2002, 2005, and 2009.
The suggested structure, NCFTE, 2009 is the curriculum that is being pursued in the teacher training programs. It emerged from the system in 2005 with some significant changes in line with the needs and expectations of 21st-century learners and the learning process.
The psychology paper in NCTE 2006 was called "Superchildhood, Child Growth, and Learning." It stressed the relationship between theory and the realistic exposure of prospective teachers. It reinforced the need to connect the theoretical foundations of growth with realistic understandings.
This would be done if prospective teachers were to research the learners in a context rather than with isolated hypotheses. It maintains that − the key point of departure should be to consider children by studying them in diverse social, economic, and cultural environments and engaging with them rather than by relying solely on child development psychological theories." It further emphasizes that "Participating teachers should be allowed to create connections between developmental constructions and children`s development.
Working around and communicating with children will help prospective teachers grow up as teachers and individuals. It, therefore, notes that "Field-based projects and a variety of opportunities for children to engage and observe will provide the requisite learning spaces for teacher development, engagement with children`s thought and learning, and the ability to listen to children."
As far as the learning process is concerned, NCTE 2006 maintains that learning is a dynamic process and takes place within the context of the learning process. Therefore, in order to allow a learner to learn constructively, the teacher should enable him/her to be actively interested in some activity and experience for himself/herself rather than for the teacher to provide it.
NCTE 2006 maintains that "learning takes place only when the learner voluntarily engages in or participates in an exercise. This is valid for the children that the teachers will teach, as well as for the teachers who are planning to communicate with the students.
Teachers do need to realize that learning is not a linear operation. It is a divergent mechanism, ultimately spiraling in nature, and takes place in a variety of circumstances, even in everyday contexts. "Thus, it could be seen that the curriculum structure for teacher education in 2006 rightly stressed the importance of learning contexts based on the experiences of learners.
The 2009 NCFTE came with a variety of issues that were more developed based on the learning process than required. The psychology course was called "Childhood, Infant, and Adolescent Growth and Learning" under "Learner Studies." As the title suggests, the paper focuses on the welfare of children and adolescents.
It also maintains that the creation research should be performed in the increasing sense of the learner. To gauge a holistic view, it is important to position the learner in a socio-economic context. It maintains that "it is equally important for teachers to engage in the social construction of childhood and adolescence, the various socio-cultural and political aspects associated with their positioning and growth in society."
The analysis of the different socio-cultural backgrounds helps the instructor to consider the diversity that exists and, at the same time, to be responsive to integration. The NCFTE 2009 further highlights the value of learning, as suggested by NCTE 2006, which is not linear but spiraling in nature and should therefore be taken into account by understanding the learning process in daily settings and a variety of circumstances.
It may be inferred that NCFTE 2009 stresses the need and value of researching the developmental cycle of children and adolescents for students, but also in a holistic sense, taking into account their socio-cultural contexts. However, the study of diversity and its effect on growth is equally important in order to gain insight into inclusions.
The curriculum structure introduced by NCTE 2014 for 2 years B.Ed. the curriculum is called the Psychological Aspects Paper "Childhood and Growing Up." The framework stresses that "the key goal of the course will be to allow student teachers to understand how different socio-political conditions create various childhoods within the context of children: families, schools, neighborhoods, and communities."
It reiterated the idea of contextualized developmental research, with an emphasis on the interdisciplinary nature of the course. It notes that "the theoretical constructs should be drawn from cross-cultural psychology, sociology, and anthropology to put together child development theories and key aspects of childhood construction, which have political, social, and cultural dimensions."
Therefore, it can be concluded that the curriculum system takes on a reforming role, not just by eliminating pedagogy from it. It not only promotes participation but also allows prospective teachers to consider growth holistically.
There is a change from discipline-oriented classrooms to interdisciplinary classrooms; from content-oriented teaching to context-oriented teaching. The system has long-term goals to enhance the overall learning process for the nation-building purpose.
NCFTE (2009) claims that there is a strong need for a thorough analysis of the high school education system; the two-year NCTE curriculum structure for B.Ed. The 2014 curriculum is responsible for meeting the standards and responsibilities attached to it based on the changes needed, in compliance with the requirements of the 21st-century learner and the learning process.
As has already been pointed out, the field of psychology and its presence and significance in teaching programs are enormous. It must be included as an integral part of the curriculum.
NCFTE 2009 confirms its position and relevance — Teacher curriculum needs to be built based on understanding child development and learning. This comprehension needs to be demonstrated by the child in various contexts, rather than through the experience of child development psychological theories.
Teachers need to consider the development of childhood and the various socio-cultural and political aspects. It is proposed that comprehensive, systemic, and empirical approaches to health education and health literacy will be included in teacher education curricula.
At present, the curriculum emphasizes the understanding of the conceptual development of the learner and also the establishment of concrete ties between the theory and its concrete portion.
There should be a compromise between the two and, at the same time, drawing from various backgrounds making it interdisciplinary in nature. However, it needs to draw on the latest research in the field and connect it in the sense of education, thereby minimizing the distance between the two.
Throughout the evolution of teacher education curricula, the emphasis has moved from abstract elements to the incorporation of functional components to complement them; from context-based, child-centric learning to an awareness of the growth of the learner in a context; from a pure representation of fieldwork to ample opportunity to incorporate and explore real-life situations. Those were the improvements that were required for the hour. In the future, as well as with the rising demands and requirements of learners and society, subsequent changes should be implemented.
The argument to be remembered is that the teaching program seeks to train prospective teachers to work with the learners in a real-life scenario. They should also be well prepared to fulfill their needs, desires, and wishes, not only at the academic level but also at the psychological level. It is important to recognize in a holistic way that learners are concerned with their physical and mental well-being, their career interests, and their socio-cultural growth in a healthy way.
With the shifts in culture and the aspirations of the learners, training takes on various forms. For example, in today`s age, with ever-increasing demand and complex roles, the level of stress is high. Likewise, the level of crime and abuse is taking a toll on the mental health of the learner; this must be tackled by the psychological aspect that will allow the teachers to take care of it.
The field of psychology, therefore, plays an important part in the system of teacher training. The representation can evolve and change over time, depending on the needs of the stakeholders, but it can never be done away with.
Published by- Atheneum Global
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